Major US Arms Sales and Grants to Pakistan Since 2001
Prepared by the Congressional Research Service for distribution to multiple congressional offices, March 7, 2013
Major US arms sales and grants to Pakistan since 2001 have included items useful for counterterrorism and counterinsurgency operations, along with a number of “big ticket” platforms more suited to conventional warfare. In dollar value terms, the bulk of purchases have been made with Pakistani national funds, although US grants have eclipsed these in recent years. The Pentagon reports total Foreign Military Sales agreements with Pakistan worth about $5.2 billion for FY2002-FY2011 (in-process sales of F-16 combat aircraft and related equipment account for about half of this). The US Congress has appropriated more than $3 billion in Foreign Military Financing (FMF) for Pakistan since 2001, more than two-thirds of which has been disbursed. These funds are used to purchase US military equipment for longer-term modernization efforts. Pakistan has also been granted US defense supplies as Excess Defense Articles (EDA). Discord in the US-Pakistan bilateral relationship beginning mid-FY2011 has slowed the pace of transfers considerably.
Major post-2001 defense supplies provided, or soon to be provided, under FMF include:
- eight P-3C Orion maritime patrol aircraft and their refurbishment (valued at $474 million, four delivered, three of which were destroyed in a 2011 attack by Islamist militants);
- 2,007 TOW anti-armor missiles ($186 million; all delivered);
- more than 5,600 military radio sets ($163 million);
- six AN/TPS-77 surveillance radars ($100 million);
- six C-130E transport aircraft and their refurbishment ($76 million);
- the Perry-class missile frigate USS McInerney, via EDA ($65 million for refurbishment; delivered);
- 20 AH-1F Cobra attack helicopters via EDA ($48 million, 12 refurbished and delivered); and
Supplies paid for with a mix of Pakistani national funds and FMF include:
- up to 60 Mid-Life Update kits for F-16A/B combat aircraft (valued at $891 million, with $477 million of this in FMF, Pakistan currently plans to purchase 45 such kits and 8 have been delivered to date); and
- 115 M-109 self-propelled howitzers ($87 million, with $53 million in FMF).
Notable items paid or to be paid for entirely with Pakistani national funds include:
- 18 new F-16C/D Block 52 combat aircraft (valued at $1.43 billion; all delivered);
- F-16 armaments including 500 AMRAAM air-to-air missiles; 1,450 2,000-pound bombs; 500 JDAM Tail Kits for gravity bombs; and 1,600 Enhanced Paveway laser-guided kits, also for gravity bombs ($629 million);
- 100 Harpoon anti-ship missiles ($298 million);
- 500 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles ($95 million); and
- six Phalanx Close-In Weapons System naval guns ($80 million).
Major articles transferred via EDA include:
- 14 F-16A/B combat aircraft; and
- 59 T-37 military trainer jets.
Under Coalition Support Funds (part of the Pentagon budget), Pakistan received 26 Bell 412 utility helicopters, along with related parts and maintenance, valued at $235 million. Under Section 1206, Frontier Corps, and Pakistan Counterinsurgency Fund authorities, the United States has provided 4 Mi-17 multirole helicopters (another 6 were provided temporarily at no cost), 4 King Air 350 surveillance aircraft, 450 vehicles for the Frontier Corps, 20 Buffalo explosives detection and disposal vehicles, helicopter spare parts, sophisticated explosives detectors, night vision devices, radios, body armor, helmets, first aid kits, litters, and other individual soldier equipment. Through International Military Education and Training and other programs, the United States has also funded and provided training for more than 2,000 Pakistani military officers.
Sources: US Departments of Defense and State